44th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development

Please see complete review. Thanks to Kathy Kline, NGO CSW/NY member for taking these notes.

44th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development April 12, 2011

Theme: Fertility, Reproductive Health and Development”

 

Second day of country speakers (5 minutes for national statements and 10 minutes for others)

 

Mexico: – almost universal knowledge of contraception but 3 out of 5 women do not use it in first sex. Contraception is available. Average age is 26. Aging population is increasing sharply 3.5% over 65 three times as fast as population as a whole. Discussion on fertility must go hand in hand with growth and development.

 

Philippines: After 16 years of implementing the International Conference on Population and Development, country is still faced with serious complications. MFR is still high rate of mortality. Domestic growth was good but not been inclusive with large segment living in poverty. 3.3 children in 2006. Poor, rural women are isolated and have one child more than what they would have wanted. Rising incidence of HIV/AIDS (.1% adult population is HIV positive) infection by 10 points. Enacted the Magna Carta of Women which institutionalizes a comprehensive women’s human rights law that seeks to eliminate discrimination against women by recognizing, protecting, fulfilling and promoting the rights of Filipino women, especially those in the marginalized sectors. Country is working on more comprehensive reproductive health program but faces opposition from conservatives. Reach out to the Church, NGOs, and other stakeholders in pursuit of a consensual legislative action without compromising human rights. Calls on developed countries for technical assistance. Demand for the passage of the Responsible Parenthood Health, and Development Bill.s

 

Denmark: Should be celebrating because of recent decision to extend ICPD action although struggle continues until work is done. Cairo Conference in 1994 was groundbreaking event, a paradigm shift (bottom up not top down) on population matters. All individuals should have the right to determine the size of their families and have the information to make such decisions free of discrimination. Country is in the forefront – support health sector in 5 African countries. 1 million safe abortions because of Danish support. Healthy women who can make own decisions and can earn income which they spend on food, medicine, etc for their families more than men. Unacceptable to see women without rights over their own bodies and in development of their societies. Strong link between women’s empowerment and women’s health. Priority to reproductive rights is embedded in human rights. Welcome to new director of ICPD.

 

Bangladesh: Aligned with Nepal’s statement. World leaders expressed concern about slow progress with reducing maternal mortality in child birth. In Sec-General’s report, Bangladesh is mentioned. Fertility has declined from 4 to 2.4 per mother. Population is over 160 million with high density of population, more than 35 times that of US. $1.30 per family for each daughter to attend school as long as they are unmarried and law of 18 as earliest age for girl’s marriage. Poverty forces some families to arrange earlier marriages. Maternal mortality 2005 – 2008 reduced by 40% (child mortality rate by 60%) but still have long way to go. 18,000 community clinics will be established with outside support. Deliveries in health care facilities has increased. Nearly 33% live below poverty line. Donor funding has dropped. 2009 covered 11% of costs and now it is lower. Look forward to the Fourth LDC Conference to take place in Istanbul. Need to check population growth and effects of climate change. Global Day of Action on Military Expenditures is today. $1.5 trillion on military which could be used to help reduce poverty.

 

Botswana: Many factors besides money and information effect the situation of fertility rates. High correlation of high fertility rates and poorer countries. Report of the Sec General in implementing E/CN/.9/20.11.5 Developing countries is heavier by 2008/2009 global financial crisis which reversed improvements made earlier. Rapid decline in fertility (6.?) to 4.2 in 1991 to 2.9 in 2007 correlated to increase literacy and women’s employment. Population can double in 30 years. Diamond exports income results in 84% of population lives near clinics. 95% of pregnant mothers receive pre-natal care from a trained person. 2009, 189 out of 100,000 dies during or immediately after child birth from causes that could have been prevented. National Road Map for Reduction of Maternal Death which addresses efficiency of system, continued care among households. Campaign recently launched. More than 40% of children born of HIV mothers developed infections and died in 1995. Due to government intervention, only 2.2% born to HIV positive women are effected. GDP contracted in 2009. Significant businesses closed down with job losses. Mining sector declined by 9%. Erosion of government’s ability to eradicate poverty. Need international help.

 

Portugal: H.E. Ambassador Joao Maria Cabral, Deputy Permanent Representative – Aligned with Hungarian colleague speaking on behalf of EU. Support of Conference on Fertility and MDGs. Main progress achievement: Since 1994, aging process increased. By 2000, age 65 or older outnumbered those under 15. Low fertility. In order to insure equity, 2007 government measures were adopted – sexual and reproductive health. Mean age of women at first birth increased by 3 years and is now 28.6. Percentage of live births born out of wedlock doubled to 38.1%. Safe volunteary pregnancy interruption is an option up to the 10th week of pregnancy. It represents 18.2% of total live births. Introduced a National Immunization Plan of the Human Papiloma Virus vaccine aimed at preventing infections. Our National Gender Strategy for Development Policy focuses on promotion of women’s economic empowerment. For mothers, 120 days of paid leave at 100% or 150 days of paid leave at 80%. If shared with father, 150 days of paid leave at 100% or 180 days of paid leave at 83%. Free dental care for pregnant women. Distribution of regular conception is free.

 

Cuba: Blockade has hindered achieving our goals. Pillars of comprehensive health care and universal access to health care. Full right to family planning and reproductive health and education which is widely promoted. Contraceptive rate is highest in Latin America (77.1% in 2007). This indicator makes Cuba third highest in American continent rate of contraceptive coverage. Global financial crisis and blockade has had a negative impact. Comprehensive approach to pregnant women is being instituted. Adolescent fertility has dropped by 30%. Pre-natal care 14.5 visits in 2008. Cuban Mother and Child Program meets all criteria. Gender equality – participation of women in all aspects of political and economic activities. Right to abortion and free and responsible choice on birth control. Actions to eradicate cultural limitations at the family level are being taken. Designing 5 year strategic plans dealing with HIV/AIDS (special UN session on 2005). Universal and free health care for those with HIV/AIDS. Unjust US policy – US government seized Global Fund to Fight Tuberculosis, AIDS, etc funds designed to help Cuba which constitutes an illegal action.

 

Nigeria: (finally a woman representative!) In last two decades, experienced high fertility rate 5.7 in 2003 and 5.3 % in 2008 – 164.8 million estimated in 2011 (75% in 25 years). Worrisome outcome. Almost half of women are married by 18. Teenage pregnancy is high. Unwanted pregnancies result in unsafe abortions which result in residual poor health. 58% of pregnant women received help from trained people. Many have children born at home. Embraced family planning to achieve MDGs 4 & 5. Government has undertaken various steps: 1) national population target related to MDGs 2) National adolescent programs to keep them in school and increase youth employment and reduce youth pregnancy. Northern area is where fertility is especially high. They have agreed to begin to deal with this. First conference for health care providers was hosted in November 2010. Government is aware of high fertility rate and wants to make family planning available to poorer communities. Gratified to work with UN to achieve these goals.

 

Pakistan: Thank SG for Report which provides useful background and appreciates UN agency UNFPA dating from 1997 and civil society which provide financial support. Pakistan is 6th most populace in the world with 175 million inhabitants;  3.8% over 65 years old. Goals: expanded access to education particularly to girls, increased access to family planning and ?. Concentrate on raising awareness and national commitment and evaluation of goals. Government has put special attention to maternal health. Adoption of national reproductive health. Finalizing our latest National Population policy initiated in 2010. 2.05% fertility rate. Over 90% of women are aware of contraception. National education includes information on health. Women empowerment – increased numbers in Parliament. Support gender sensitive reporting. Need for comprehensive health care; eradication of poverty; need global partnership

 

Yesterday: Malta stated its   to abortion but support for control of women over their fertility and family employment through contraceptive measures. Need to share information and resources.

 

Netherlands: (another female) Welcomes excellent report on this year’s theme of SG because it is factual and very clear.  Cost effectiveness in investing in women and vulnerable groups. Continuum of care – legal right to abortion included is important to permit families to determine size and age of children. Netherlands has low level of abortions. Sexual reproduction and rights is one of 4 Dutch government. Pragmatism within national country context forms government and foreign aid. Share best practices is important. Mentioned various recent reports which included maternal health and best practices. We partner with national government, civil societies and NGOs  and international organizations and private sector. Key importance of investing in young people as mentioned in SG report. Need to support meaningful involvement in decision-making (Dutch has a young person rep).

 

Guatemala: (female) Committed to effective implementation on fertility and reproductive growth. It has been difficult to adopt laws and polices although we have adopted various conventions. Reduce inequality faced by rural and indigenous women is difficult (4.5% children per women, much higher). Adoption of regulations after 5 years adopted in 2005 and included in national program of reproductive health. 2009 regulation for comprehensive access to family planning programs was adopted. Emphasis on sex education was discussed. Implementing comprehensive education about reproductive health to change cultural and social factors; establish of a national commission in 2009 to provide contraception resulted in more wide spread distribution. Family Planning Law, Law on Maternal Health approved in 2010, commission on Maternal Health. 2011, a letter of understanding signed by two ministries to prevent by education, STDs, HIV/AIDS. National policy for women sets forth 12 themes to foster coordinator among various ministries to improve their situation. Highlighted the rights and needs of women. Planning of gender based budget statistics – not been observed but can now be reviewed. More emphasis on population, fertility and development but still have major challenges.

 

Israel: Promotes gender equity and given high support in the country. 7.8 million in population. 63 year history. Achieved ranking 15th in UN development index. 75% is Jewish, 20% minorities. Reflects international immigration. Home to a growing number of African (40,000) . Fertility rate 2.96% in 2009  is highest in developed world. 6th lowest maternal mortality rate. Family planning is widely available. Fertility rate was 3.7% for Moslems, 2.9% for Jews. 2.7% is what secular Israelis said is best. Direct relationship between higher number of children with better educated and better off people. IN 2008 87% of Jews and 83% of Arabs reported satisfaction with their lives. Need to improve early childhood education and expanded housing and conditions for working women.

 

Uganda: 3.2% fertility rate. 33 million predicted to reach 80 million by 2030. Youthful population of about 50% below 18. Maternal mortality reduction is happening slowly and by 2006 was 435 per 100,000 live births. Reproductive health through improving nutrition is supported. About a quarter of the population lives under the poverty line. Constitution prescribes equality between women and men with same rights. Affirmative action 32% of women in Parliament. Addressing sexual violence and harmful practices. 1997 Universal Primary Education was introduced. 38% of reproductive contraception. In 2007 Universal Secondary Education was introduced improving enrollment from 44 to 50%.

 

Norway: (female) was one of the first to substantially reduce maternal mortalities more than 100 years ago (maternal care as backbone). Courageous politicians used research to bolster best practices even if controversial. Women’s organizations took up these issues. Family planning services were integrated into health care. 1.95% fertility rate associated with family friend policies of the government. Non parental leaves of pay 56 weeks, full kindergarten, up to 10 days of paid leave for care of sick child. Even male cabinet ministers take leave. Only 12% of women are childless, many work part-time. Breast feeding rates 98% of newborns, at 6 months 80% is high. Abortion on demand since 1979 and are moderate. Those who object is low. Since 2002 16-19 girls can get free and condoms are available free. Duality of sexual pleasure and protection from disease. 9 out of 1,000 teenagers are pregnant, lower. 28 for women and 31 for men. Sexual diseases are up but not with HIV/AIDS where intervention was good. Same sex marriage exists and can adopt. Sexual reproductive health to diverse population. Fertility is close to replacement rate.

 

Holy See: Focus on respect of dignity of the human person in all development. Many discussions led by false notion that very act of giving life is to be feared. Distorted view that birth rates especially with poor must be lower in order to have development. These apprehensions denigrate nature of human sexuality. Want right to have children free of coercion. With fewer poor children less education needed, with fewer people to be fed, would have less need which is distorted. Poor as a commodity to be managed without innate dignity and worth. Focus political and financial resources not through trivializing marriage but on providing development assistance on the poor. Lowering of fertility rates has given rise to aging populations. Must continue to reflect on relationship between population and development.

 

Keynote speaker: Amy Tsui, Professor and Director of the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Succeeding and meeting the needs for a better world.” Family Planning was rated one of the achievements along with fluoridated water and seat belts. Good news: more than 3/5 of world’s population currently practices contraception. Even in the developing world more than 50% practices contraception. Still need to focus our attention and resources:  Highest use is East Asia, then LA, then South Asia and then Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is still in need of improvement. Much inter-regional variation within Sub-Saharan Africa with Southern Africa as higher. Successful family planning case study is Iran where it dropped from 7 to 2%. Cause was delayed marriage and occurred within 14 years. 73% use contraception including sterilization. Almost equivalent use in rural and urban populations. Takes considerable amount of time for R & D and marketing of contraception guided by WHO clinical guidelines. Three methods likely to be game-changing: 1) hormonal ring; 2) depovera at lower dose with disposal injection easily administered by low level provider; 3) subdermal implant manufactured in China inserted in the upper arm and good for 4 years.

 

Graph of Indonesia shows level of contraception use with introduction of new methods.

 

Challenges to family planning? Major economic inequalities. High unintended pregnancies in any setting despite access and use of modern methods. Need to do a better job with consultation with contraception. Most occur with women not using contraception.

 

Youth population – will reach 639 million by 2050 mostly in Asian Pacific and about 87 million in Caribbean and Latin America and 300+ million in ….Increasing proportion of sexual activity with close to 20% in Cote D’Ivoire. Majority shows that they are using contraception. Population under $2 per day, has more poverty. Ratio of working adults to dependents is increasing for South/Central Asia until 2020, Eastern Europe, SE Asia (increasing aging).

 

Dr. Ron Lee, UC Berkeley, Dr. Mason at U of Hawaii research on change of labor income and consumption – consumption rises strongly with age and rapidly after 80 in a graph. Elderly in low income countries have to work longer.

 

Other investment is education for girls is key. Recent study this week, with higher fertility rates, higher maternal mortality rate goes along. Recent declines in fertility are estimated to have prevented 3.6 million deaths between 1990-2008. HIV infection hits women especially during their reproductive ages so contraception information is crucial.

 

Increasing efforts to integrate child and sexual health care needs not deal with them separately. Family planning is cost effective, about $30 per user which results in much higher savings.

 

Moving forward: Why women do not use contraception graph shows concern over health consequences fear (not necessarily reality). Need more communication programs.

 

UN Population Policy Inquiry Database provides information. Governments should step up and see this as an investment not an expenditure. Family Planning conference will take place the end of November 2011 in Senegal.

 

Q & A:

Religion and contraceptive use – evidence since 1960s where issue was Catholics using contraception, turns out that the demand over-rides individual attributes (methods & beliefs). In Brazil and Mexico high use of contraception (60-70%). Religion is not a barrier to practice.

 

Contraception lowers fertility but if people have the means to support more children, that is their right. Developed countries, recent study shows that when you go below replacement, fertility begins to rise again.

 

Iran – success of family planning was not coercive.

 

Contraception is not to be driven by population control.

 

Paradox for rising number of young people is that when they become sexually active and choose not to use it and then resort to unsafe abortions and can become infertile. They want to space out and time children but don’t always use contraception.

 

Malaysia has 40-50% of contraceptive use so fertility is low for other reasons (perhaps late marriage).

 

US question from Peter: Could you comment and demand side of family planning. Supply constraints with efforts to improve forecasting systems in developing countries. Rapidly rising use of Depro provera injection. While no evidence of anything bad, some possibility of bone loss in older women so need to expand possibilities.

 

Netherlands: female condoms still a niche product. Is there research about them? A sponge and is quite popular in South Africa. Cost is the inhibiting factor in its use.

 

The Gambia: Family planning helps people to prosper. Disparities in contraception use. What prevents more progress? Cultural constraints/religious opposition?

 

U.S.  Mission Briefing  1:30 – 2:30 pm

Margaret Pollack, heading US delegation. Priorities for this year’s commission: 1) focus on youth, human rights, reproductive health and family planning. Negotiating resolution – strong initial text and will suggest minimum amendments. Role of the commission in continuing to review implementation of ICDP nearly 17 years ago in Cairo. Next year, will take on the issue of youth. Still debating focus for 2013. Population sustainable development (EU) or international migration and development (G77) is what department is recommending.

Sandra USAID – reviewing the platform which is quite strong. Keep women as central to development. 45 year plus history of doing family planning can see how it reduces child and maternal deaths and helps development particularly for women.

 

Susan PAI which tracks policies and funding related to family planning. New partnerships with alliance of AID and Gates, etc. Wants to see renewed enthusiasm is reflected in outcome document.

 

Q & A:
Why not any mention of “family” except family planning. Margaret’s response: Cairo spoke specifically for families. Not sure who is the expert on families in the US government.

 

US Global Health Initiative recently launched. Fully consistent with SC introduced last year on women and children’s health and what Cairo stated. It is country led. Strong commitment from the Obama Administration. Re funding, trying to sort out budget issues for 2011. UNFPA will be $40 million which is less than 2010 but still good support. $571 million for AID bi-lateral funding which is also less than in 2010. President has requested for 2012 continues $47.5 million for UNFPA.

 

Susan: You mentioned human rights. Third Committees have been working hard and will be an Open-Ended Working Group for a Convention on Ageing. Asked about human rights as foundation of panelists’ work. Margaret: human rights is the foundation.

 

Elaborate more on youth: issue around access to comprehensive education and services. 1/3 of the world’s population is under 18. US AID youth lens throughout all activities and not treated separately. Lives of girls and young men are quite different than in the US. Not be able to plan your future. Take girls out of school by 13 to begin families resulting in cases of fistula and loss of education. PAI follows lead of Youth Coalition and hosted side event yesterday with young people in youth led organizations. Largest youth cohort coming into adolescence. View them as an asset not a burden on societies.

 

New leadership of UNFPA and UN Women. UNFPA new head is a strong advocate as a trained medical doctor. He is assessing the lay of the land. Laurie Phipps follows women’s issues at US Mission. There may be a Memorandum of Understanding between UNFPA and UN Women to delineate their organization’s responsibilities.

 

Afternoon UN Commission Session

Argentina: The work of the Commission has made a contribution calling for active participation of international players on behalf of population and development. We need to consider the issue in the context of vulnerable social sector of ageing and is actively promoting an International Convention on the Rights of Elderly People. In the field of sexual rights people are part of human rights. Affirms that in the case of countries where abortion is legal, states should promote reductions of restrictions. Welcome by Under Sec Gen for Social Affairs who highlighted relationship between family planning and reproductive rights and a sustainable model of development. Noted implications of these problems for poor women. Reduction of fertility relates directly to development. Exec Director of UNFPA highlighted the problems of a like concern for our government – the need to reduce adolescent unwanted pregnancy which can result in unsafe abortions. Need sex education. Emphasize important role of UNFPA in LA in advising the governments in implementing policies bearing in mind each country. Importance in our region of the necessary funding by UNFPA with their advice. Increasingly the international community has been accepting binding commitments on spacing of births, providing education and resources. Time to honor our commitments.

 

The Gambia: Implication of ICPD. National policy were revised. Government has invested in human resources, eg 2003 census decline of population 4.2 to 2.8% within 23 years. Infant mortality declined but not have reliable data to prove it so have a health survey currently underway. Believes in universal access to health care including HIV/AIDS (1% of population). Free maternal care. Challenges: beliefs and practices, inadequate resources and 15 year youthful age. Have made significant improvements – now 4% of population is over 65 years. Need more funding.

 

India: 1994 International Conference on Population held in Cairo marked remarkable consensus and influenced MDGs. Government attaches highest importance to achieving social justice and development. More than ¼ million women die each year from preventable situations especially related to child birth. Our minister of health is part of WHO evaluate and strategy for implementing last year’s comprehensive approach. India major national priority is 2005 launch of health care facilities in the rural areas. Key features = comprehensive maternal care, counseling, emergency obgyn, child care, immunization, nutrition, reproductive health, sanitation, strengthening of structure, child services, etc. Appointment of community social health care workers, ambulance services, transfer of cash to promote institutions, village integrated health care system. SMS service for tracking mothers and immunization. Mobile phones to health care workers. Voucher scheme, public/private partnerships for hospital training. Name-based tracking of every pregnant woman. Annual health survey at the district and regional level has been initiated. Have a long way to go but have increased by 20% our health care budget. India’s census is 1.21 billion people. Need for jobs for young people. 940 girls to 1,000 boys. At its most skewed with wealthier population.

 

South Africa: Committed to the 15 year review adopted by Africa in Oct 2009 and resolution of South Africa meeting in July 2009. Our population policy – right for couples to choose the number and timing of children. 2.9 in 1998 to 2.38 in 2010 fertility rate. Knowledge of contraception is widely known mostly use injections and the pill. 65.3% South African women 15-49 years old use contraception. Approximately 13% of maternal deaths was from unsafe abortion. More than 80% of births occur at a health facility and 90% receive skilled health personnel. Infant mortality declined from 45 per 1,000 live births in 1998 to 42.5 in 2003 but those under 5 increased slightly. Unmet need to enhancing female autonomy.

 

Jamaica: (who was also acting chair). ICPD has made a significant impact on our country. Progress in legislation, policies particularly in rights of women and children. Not will be reached in 5 years: gender equality, HIV/AIDS, resources for social protection, etc Late 1980s – 1990s fertility not show any sign of decline and was a major concern. UNFPA and others provided assistance. 1994 3 to 2.4 children per woman. 15-19 year old women lowered child birth from 112 to 72 per 1,000 adolescents. Still high. Increase in contraceptive use and female employment and external migration has resulted in reduced fertility rate. Age of marriage is not a sign of fertility rate. Not a good measure of fertility reality. Women under 25 years have common law relations not marriage. 75% reduction in maternal deaths was established MDG goal. In Jamaica, despite government programs, reduction is still too high. Need to improve maternal and pre-natal services.

 

Belarus: With adoption of country specific program with UNFPA. We want to increase birth rates to equal pre-WW II amount. Increase growth rates and improve maternal and child health. Working for comprehensive program. With UNFPA is conducting work on strategy of universal health, pre-natal care and post birth. Opened 17 centers of adolescent health, Provide care to families which host orphans (70% orphans hosted). Child mortality was reduced by half and maternal deaths four fold. 99% of children under 5 live in strong families. In 2011, level of aid provided to them will increase by 4 fold. At the end of 2010, international conference, right of women and families and gender equality held in Mintz. Mothers and fathers can stay at home to take care of children. Belaurus suffered from Chernobyl. Government has spent $19 million dollars since that disaster. Belaurus is grateful to UNFPA, Russia and Ukraine. Improving women’s health must include women as victims of trafficking. Will continue to solve issues.

 

Sweden: Welcome to extend efforts beyond 2014. Welcome this theme. Clear link between promoting gender equality, reproductive health care and development. Rights and choices of the individual is the key. Every woman and man must be able to choose when and under what circumstances they have children. More than 1.5 billion people are young women and men who are or soon will be sexually active. Young people must be meaningfully involved in decision-making process that affect their lives and futures. More than 350,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Sec General’s report on fertility, reproductive health and development states that an additional $3.6 billion for family planning is needed annually.

 

Vietnam: Proportion of older people is increasing. 1999 -2009 to 2.03 to 2 % fertility rate. By 2005, Vietnam has achieved lowest level in 50 years. Population of about 86 million by 2010 87 million. Last 10 years 73 years average mortality. In 2008, 75 out of 1,000 live births was IMR.

Villages have population coordinators. Funding for family planning has increased. Many challenges.

 

Colombia: endeavoring to strengthen social protections to break the cycle of poverty. Importance of education as well as juris prudence as obligation of the state. National public health promotes reproductive health. It is one of components of National Development Plan. Also have For the Right of a Consensual Society. Promote family planning and prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Reduction of 2.5 to 2.1 in 2010 (five year period) in fertility. Decline of 19.% of adolescent pregnancy. Reduction of maternal mortality and we are 82% toward achievement of the MDG goal. Challenge to reduce pregnancy of women of low education level and adolescents. Conviction of importance of intra-sectoral approach to links of fertility, reproductive health and development.

 

Belgium: Before 2050 9 billion people are estimated. Program of action adopted in Cairo in 1994 is important. Belgium’s concern is of aging population. Developing community programs for childhood, family planning centers focused on young adolescents. Belgium has low birth rate and so have developed family-friendly programs. Quality education should reach girls and boys to manage spacing of births. Access to information on reproductive is far from perfect in the world. Aid alone is not enough. Belgium supports recommendation of SG to integrate demographics and reproductive health in….

 

WHO representative: a female. Achievement of MDG goals is related to the theme of this Commission session. 57.12 Resolution of WHO adopted world health calls upon universal access to reproductive health care.

 

Rep of Asian Pacific Resource Center for Women: 42% of maternal deaths occur in this area mostly due to unsafe abortions. Total fertility rates has declined but poor rural women and in urban slums have more children than they desire. Region lacks informed choice and side effects. Gender imbalance reflected in low condom use. Under-estimated needs. Have 60% of the world’s deprived people but receive only $12 per capita compared to much more in Africa. Economic crisis by 2015, 892 million will remain in extreme income poverty in our area. Will see new and emerging disasters: climate change, sexual violence will increase.

 

Representative of Family Care International: strives to make pregnancy and childcare safe.

 

IPAS: supporting women for safe abortions. Up to 5 million girls and women suffer death or problems due to unsafe abortions.

 

Rep of ? Mexican female in Spanish – Yemen put forward a resolution to indefinitely extend efforts beyond 2014 of Cairo goals particularly those pertaining to reproductive rights. But we don’t want extend to mitigate the urgency to deal with the goals as soon as possible. Need for collaboration between governments and NGOs. Particularly concerned about unsafe abortions among poorest women. WHO reported an increase in unsafe abortions from 19 million to 26 million. We need to renew the Cairo intentions made 17 years ago.

 

International Planned Parenthood Federation works in 174 countries. Must extend time period and increase priorities and funding beyond 2014. Beyond 2015 need to continue to support gender equity and reproductive health, reduce unsafe abortions, fertility, maternal and child mortality. Girls and women continue to bear the brunt of health problems. Empowering young women to take decisions of all aspects of their lives, brings more development. Will choose more for their children, not more children. Reinvesting 90% in their families. Need to provide comprehensive sexual education. 215 million women have an unmet need for family planning. Governments need the reach of civil societies to achieve their goals.

 

World Population Foundation: theme is extremely important. Lessons from Vietnam, Indonesia, India and Pakistan. Young people are effective – sexual diseases, early marriage, etc. 25% of total marriages are underage marriages involving women aged under 18. Family planning targets only married couples not single women. Commission decided on “Adolescents and Youth” for its 45th Session in 2012.

International Planned Parenthood Africa Region: nearly a billion people with high HIV/AIDS. Having a baby at 13 or less means high risk, not attending school, not be able to get  or retain a job.

 

Others….including New Zealand Family Planning Association and the people of the Pacific– more than 700 women die per 1,000 live births in Papua. More than 50% is young. Teenage fertility rate is high. Women and adolescent girls have unmet needs. Papua New Guinea has high HIV/AIDS rates. High rate of sexual violence (Solomon Islands more than 50% have reported sexual violence) and sexual diseases in the region. In the Pacific, reducing the population pressure through unintended pregnancies, reduces use of resources which is a problem given climate change concerns.

 

In India, many children are sexually abused. 77% of new infections were in young people in Indonesia. In Egypt, about 60% use conception but family planning messages is not reaching rural women. High level of sexual abuse in Egypt. In Poland, number of unsafe illegal abortions is high. In Kenya, many cases of young women are arrested as prostitutes because they are carrying condoms. At least 3 months of girls miss school due to lack of sanitation items.

 

Global Youth Action Network: from in support of young people’s human rights including sexual ones. This year, is international year of youth. We are the largest generation of young people in the world. Comprehensive sexual information is essential. 10 million teenage girls marry without completing school. 5.4 million young live with HIV. We have the right to sexual consulting. We demand that restrictions to sexual education be removed.

 

International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemiphere Region: network of 40 associations provide pre-natal care, HIV/AIDS testing, advocates for sexual and reproductive rights, etc. Speaker is a youth representative from Latin America. 1.3 billion young people live in lower income countries. Over 500,000 each year are infected with a sexual disease. Vital that access to reproductive health information should be available to young people on a confidential basis. Need a comprehensive sex ed in schools taught by specialized trained people. Sexual rights are human rights and should be integrated into country plans and policies.

 

European Parliamentary Network in 29 countries focusing on improving sexual issues. In many countries need more children. In Cairo, countries agreed that it is up to the woman herself with her partner should determine how many children and when to have them – not the government, not her mother-in-law. Women die silently even if it is like the death from 2 airplane crashes per day. No one favors abortion; this is a discussion about choice. We can hold our governments responsible. Donor assistance has been increasingly steadily but this is not enough. We need to double our efforts if we want mothers and babies to stop dying.

 

International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe Albanian civil society. First NGO working in family planning. Role of civil society has been important. Est 3 million population with 1/3 under 35 years old. Abortion was forbidden until fairly recently. 1.6% fertility rate most use traditional methods. 300 per 1,000 live births end in abortion. Adolescent needs are not being helped by the government. They don’t have comprehensive curriculum or trained staff. Government needs to invest in young people especially during this time of low fertility rates.